general information about tunisia

Forces, with his German and Italian troops, in the western area of Tunisia. [74] Tunisia refused a French request for the extradition of two of the President's nephews, from Leila's side, who were accused by the French State prosecutor of having stolen two mega-yachts from a French marina. [131], Tourism accounted for 7% of GDP and 370,000 jobs in 2009. [143], Oil production began in 1966 in Tunisia. However, it was not until the final Ottoman reconquest of Tunis from Spain in 1574 under Kapudan Pasha Uluç Ali Reis that the Ottomans permanently acquired the former Hafsid Tunisia, retaining it until the French conquest of Tunisia in 1881. In maritime terms, the country claims a contiguous zone of 24 nautical miles (44.4 km; 27.6 mi), and a territorial sea of 12 nautical miles (22.2 km; 13.8 mi). [151] Tunisia provides good quality drinking water throughout the year.[152]. She finished the competition with 19 medals; 9 golds, 5 silvers and 5 bronzes. [118], In 2017, Tunisia became the first Arab country to outlaw domestic violence against women, which was previously not a crime. [48] Consequently, the region underwent rapid urbanisation as famines depopulated the countryside and industry shifted from agriculture to manufactures. [206] Nearly a third of the books are published for children.[207]. The plague epidemics ravaged Tunisia in 1784–1785, 1796–1797 and 1818–1820.[58]. [161], From the late 19th century to after World War II, Tunisia was home to large populations of French and Italians (255,000 Europeans in 1956),[162] although nearly all of them, along with the Jewish population, left after Tunisia became independent. In 1930 "The Rachidia" was founded well known thanks to artists from the Jewish community. Nevertheless, Tunisia could not accomplish anything more than freedom and democracy. During the pre-revolution era there were at some point restrictions in the wearing of Islamic head scarves (hijab) in government offices and on public streets and public gatherings. It is mountainous in the north and extends into the Sahara Desert in the south. [46], After conquering Cairo, the Fatimids abandoned Tunisia and parts of Eastern Algeria to the local Zirids (972–1148). Following a report by Amnesty International, The Guardian called Tunisia "one of the most modern but repressive countries in the Arab world".[67]. Keep an eye out for rare desert wildlife and revel in the splendor of wilderness sunrises and sunsets. [40] During the 5th and 6th centuries (from 430 to 533 AD), the Germanic Vandals invaded and ruled over a kingdom in Northwest Africa that included present-day Tripoli. [110] Sharia courts were abolished in 1956. Refers to the Maghreb countries, including Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria and Libya. [122] Tunisia's military spending was 1.6% of GDP as of 2006[update]. General Erwin Rommel, the German commander in Africa, wished to defeat the Allies in Tunisia, as the Germans had done in the Battle of France when the Allies were inexperienced against the German Blitzkrieg. Tunisia is a North African country bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. General information; Useful links; General information / About Portugal / General information; Geographic Location. The institution did not take long to assemble a group of musicians, poets, scholars. According to Matthew Carr, "As many as eighty thousand Moriscos settled in Tunisia, most of them in and around the capital, Tunis, which still contains a quarter known as Zuqaq al-Andalus, or Andalusia Alley. The history of the Jews in Tunisia goes back some 2,000 years. [105], According to CIA The World Factbook, ethnic groups in Tunisia are: Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%. [138], Days before Tunisia's 2019 parliamentary elections, the nation finds itself struggling with a sluggish economy. The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from Phoenicia, now present-day Lebanon and adjacent areas.[37]. Critical approach to the activities of the president, government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (then in power) were suppressed. Today it is home to some of the best-preserved Roman ruins in the world, of which the most famous is the UNESCO-recognized Amphitheatre of El Jem. [110] The Code of Personal Status remains one of the most progressive civil codes in North Africa and the Muslim world. [128] The bulk of Tunisians belong to the Maliki School of Sunni Islam and their mosques are easily recognizable by square minarets. "[217], Coordinates: 34°N 9°E / 34°N 9°E / 34; 9. In the 19th century, the rulers of Tunisia became aware of the ongoing efforts at political and social reform in the Ottoman capital. [217] ITF president Francesco Ricci Bitti said: "There is no room for prejudice of any kind in sport or in society. Tunisia ranked 17th in the category of "quality of the [higher] educational system" and 21st in the category of "quality of primary education" in The Global Competitiveness Report 2008–9, released by The World Economic Forum. At this time, there are no direct flights to Tunis from the United States. Under French colonization, European settlements in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew from 34,000 in 1906 to 144,000 in 1945. Russell", "Saladin and the Ayyubid Campaigns in the Maghrib", "Amnesty International censures Tunisia over human right", "BBC News | OBITUARIES | Habib Bourguiba: Father of Tunisia", "Tunisians hail fall of ex-leader's corrupt family", "Tunisie: comment s'enrichit le clan Ben Ali? Portugal, officially The Portuguese Republic, is a country in southern Europe, founded in 1143, occupying a total area of 92,212 km 2. With a total land mass of 59,984 square miles/155,360 square kilometers, Tunisia is slightly larger than the state of Georgia. Paramilitary forces consisted of a 12,000-member national guard. "[164], Arabic is the official language, and Tunisian Arabic, known as Tounsi,[165] is the national, vernacular variety of Arabic and is used by the public. (SONEDE), a national water supply authority that is an autonomous Tunisia is located in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast. In 1910 there were 105,000 Italians in Tunisia.[61]. Growth in private sector radio and television broadcasting has seen the creation of numerous operations including Radio Mosaique FM, Jawhara FM, Zaytuna FM, Hannibal TV, Ettounsiya TV, and Nessma TV. General Information . The army is responsible for national defence and also internal security. They founded the first Islamic city in Northwest Africa, Kairouan. Responsibility for the water supply systems in urban areas and large rural centres is assigned to the Sociéte Nationale d'Exploitation et de Distribution des Eaux The official language is Arabic. [106] In the 2011 constituent assembly, women held between 24% and 31% of all seats. The Tunisia national football team, also known as "The Eagles of Carthage," won the 2004 African Cup of Nations (ACN), which was held in Tunisia. There are 29 airports in Tunisia, with Tunis Carthage International Airport and Djerba–Zarzis International Airport being the most important ones. The premier football league is the "Tunisian Ligue Professionnelle 1". [97], Tunisia's climate is Mediterranean in the north, with mild rainy winters and hot, dry summers. In October 2014 Tunisia held its first elections under the new constitution following the Arab Spring. Comprising 40,000 square kilometers of pristine desert, Tunisia's section of the Grand Erg Oriental is a wonderland of sweeping dunes and hidden oases. Attacks on European shipping were made by corsairs, primarily from Algiers, but also from Tunis and Tripoli, yet after a long period of declining raids the growing power of the European states finally forced its termination. Currency: The local currency is the Tunisian Dinar (TND) which is divided in 1000 millimes. Other peoples have also migrated to Tunisia during different periods of time, including West Africans, Greeks, Romans, Phoenicians (Punics), Jews, and French settlers. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and Libya to the southeast. The main clubs are Espérance Sportive de Tunis, Étoile Sportive du Sahel, Club Africain, Club Sportif Sfaxien, Union Sportive Monastirienne, and ES Metlaoui. During the Roman period, the area of what is now Tunisia enjoyed a huge development. [199], After independence in 1956, the art movement in Tunisia was propelled by the dynamics of nation building and by artists serving the state. Economic liberalisation provided further opportunities for financial mismanagement,[72] while corrupt members of the Trabelsi family, most notably in the cases of Imed Trabelsi and Belhassen Trabelsi, controlled much of the business sector in the country. It cannot be taken into or out of the country. [208][209], In 2007, some 245 newspapers and magazines (compared to only 91 in 1987) are 90% owned by private groups and independents. In 2008 it had a GDP of US$41 billion (official exchange rates), or $82 billion (purchasing power parity).[128]. Tunis (Tunisia) is a country in North Africa located on the Mediterranean coast. ... Telephone calls within Tunisia should be dialled using all eight digits, irrespective of location. [46][47] This prosperity permitted luxurious court life and was marked by the construction of new palace cities such as al-Abassiya (809) and Raqadda (877). [76], Independent human rights groups, such as Amnesty International, Freedom House, and Protection International, documented that basic human and political rights were not respected. Its coast was settled by Phoenicians starting as early as the 12th century BC (Bizerte, Utica). The Central Bank of Tunisia announced that the digitisation of the Tunisian dinar has started and that the paper-backed CBDC will be issued on the Universa Blockchain. In the 2008 Summer Olympics, Tunisian Oussama Mellouli won a gold medal in 1500 meter freestyle. As for literature in French, it is characterized by its critical approach. The creation of Radio Tunis in 1938 allowed musicians a greater opportunity to disseminate their works. The team won the 2011 Afrobasket and hosted Africa's top basketball event in 1965, 1987 and 2015. Along the Mediterranean coast, resort towns like Hammamet provide an abundance of sun and sea; while the southern Sahara is populated by dramatic desert landscapes, fascinating Berber villages and abandoned Star Wars sets. [195], While children generally acquire Tunisian Arabic at home, when they enter school at age 6, they are taught to read and write in Standard Arabic. In the 2005 Handball Championship in Tunis, Wissem Hmam was ranked as the top scorer of the tournament. Prisons are crowded and drug offenders represent nearly a third of the prison population. The ITF Board decided to send a strong message to the Tunisian Tennis Federation that this kind of action will not be tolerated. According to The New York Times, Tunisia is "known for its golden beaches, sunny weather and affordable luxuries". The first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place in 1534 under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, the younger brother of Oruç Reis, who was the Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. In the capital, Tunis, the Bardo Museum has archaeological exhibits from Roman mosaics to Islamic art. A 2.5-hour drive south of Tunis takes you to El Jem, a Punic city that became an important center of commerce during Roman times. About Tunisia. [129] Tunisia has managed to attract many international companies such as Airbus[130] and Hewlett-Packard. The catalyst for mass demonstrations was the death of Mohamed Bouazizi, a 26-year-old Tunisian street vendor, who set himself afire on 17 December 2010 in protest at the confiscation of his wares and the humiliation inflicted on him by a municipal official named Faida Hamdy. According to the Roman historian Sallust, the demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa. The culture of Tunisia is mixed due to its long established history of outside influence from people ‒ such as Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Arabs, Turks, Italians, Spaniards, and the French ‒ who all left their mark on the country. In November 1987, doctors[68] declared Bourguiba unfit to rule and, in a bloodless coup d'état, Prime Minister Zine El Abidine Ben Ali assumed the presidency[66] in accordance with Article 57 of the Tunisian constitution. The main field is El Bourma. Ben Ali and his family were accused of corruption[71] and plundering the country's money. This is particularly relevant when speaking to someone of the opposite sex.Of course it is important to keep eye contact, but Tunisians hide their intentions well from others. [186] In fact, Tunisia along with Morocco has been said to be the Arab countries most accepting of their Jewish populations. Visa required for U.S. citizens before you go to Tunisia: No. [189] Mosques were restricted from holding communal prayers or classes. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. There is no risk of malaria in Tunisia. On February 19, 1943, Rommel launched an attack against the U.S. The founders of Carthage also established a Tophet, which was altered in Roman times. Spend the day exploring the winding streets and souks of the medina, or admiring Roman ruins at nearby Carthage. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Assembly of the Representatives of the People, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, final Ottoman reconquest of Tunis from Spain, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Nawaat – Interview avec l' Association Tunisienne de Culture Amazighe", "Tunisian Amazigh and the Fight for Recognition – Tunisialive",, "Semi-presidential government in Tunisia and Egypt", "National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia", "Portal of the Presidency of the Government- Tunisia: government, administration, civil service, public services, regulations and legislation", Tunisie – France-Diplomatie – Ministère des Affaires étrangères et du Développement international, Pourquoi l'Italie de Matteo Renzi se tourne vers la Tunisie avant l'Europe | JOL Journalism Online Press, "La Tunisie renforce ses relations avec l'Italie", "Tunisie : les législatives fixées au 26 octobre et la présidentielle au 23 novembre", "Tunisia holds first post-revolution presidential poll", "Tunisia | Country report | Freedom in the World | 2020", "Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57)", "The City of Carthage: From Dido to the Arab Conquest", "History of Tunisia – Lonely Planet Travel Information", "Populations Crises and Population Cycles, Claire Russell and W.M.S. The country maintains 19,232 kilometres (11,950 mi) of roads,[128] with three highways: the A1 from Tunis to Sfax (works ongoing for Sfax-Libya), A3 Tunis-Beja (works ongoing Beja – Boussalem, studies ongoing Boussalem – Algeria) and A4 Tunis – Bizerte. In 1948 the Jewish population was an estimated 105,000, but by 2013 only about 900 remained. [135] The Tunis Telecom City is a US$3 billion project to create an IT hub in Tunis. The rate of non-revenue water is the lowest in the region at 21% in 2012. The general rule is to keep an arms length away when speaking to someone. There were reports that the Tunisian police harassed men with "Islamic" appearance (such as those with beards), detained them, and sometimes compelled men to shave their beards off.[188]. Unfortunately, you cannot change TND outside Tunisia. [195], In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 3.37% of the country's GDP. Football is the most popular sport in Tunisia. Population. [66] From independence in 1956 until the 2011 revolution, the government and the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), formerly Neo Destour and the Socialist Destourian Party, were effectively one. Culture. [104], The number of legalized political parties in Tunisia has grown considerably since the revolution. Today, the cultural identity of Tunisians is the product of a centuries-long historical trajectory, with the Tunisian nation today being a junction of the Amazigh, as well as Punic, Roman, Arab, Andalusian, Turkish, and French cultural and linguistic input. Inland from the Sahel, between the Dorsal and a range of hills south of Gafsa, are the Steppes. That said, an important number of genetic and other historical studies point out to the predominance of the Amazighs in Tunisia. With its safe, laid-back vibe and incredible heritage, Tunis is a great place to start your Tunisian adventure. The Tunisian national handball team won the African Cup ten times, being the team dominating this competition. As of 1 January 2017, the population of Tunisia was estimated to be 11,444,409 people. After several attempts starting in 647, Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697 and introduced Islam and arabized the local population. [163], The first people known to history in what is now Tunisia were the Berbers. for its policy on recreational drug use, for instance automatic 1-year prison sentences for consuming cannabis. Legend says that Dido from Tyre, now in modern-day Lebanon, founded the city in 814 BC, as retold by the Greek writer Timaeus of Tauromenium. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. [136], Tunisia Economic City is a city being constructed near Tunis in Enfidha. This was the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a protectorate in 1881. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Majlis Al-Nuwab (Chamber of Deputies)", "49 femmes élues à l'assemblée constituante : 24% des 217 sièges", "Tunisie: Selma Znaidi, une femme de plus à l'Assemblée", "State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition", International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, "Two Men Sentenced To 8 Months in Jail For Suspicion of Being Gay", "The Tunisian women locked up for smoking a joint", "It will no longer be legal to rape a woman in Tunisia if you marry her afterwards", "Våld mot kvinnor blir olagligt i Tunisien – Nyheter (Ekot)", "The Global Competitiveness Index 2009–2010 rankings", "HP to open customer service center in Tunisia", "Trouble in paradise: How one vendor unmasked the 'economic miracle, "Tunisia2020 attracts billions in foreign funds", "Democracy hangs in the balance in Tunisia", "A Night, and Day, In Tunisia at a New Resort", "Effort national de maitrise de l'energie : contribution de la steg", "Tunisia : A civil nuclear station of 1000 Megawatt and two sites are selected", Nouvelle version du plan solaire tunisien, "Joint Monitoring Programme for Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation", Etude sur la participation privée dans les infrastructures en Tunisie, "Le Tunisien: une dimension méditerranéenne qu'atteste la génétique", "An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (Southern Tunisia)",, "Studi berberi e mediterranei. Tunisia is one of the European Union's most established trading partners in the Mediterranean region and ranks as the EU's 30th largest trading partner. supervision of small and medium water supplies in the remaining rural The industrial sector is mainly made up of clothing and footwear manufacturing, production of car parts, and electric machinery. The terrain in the north is mountainous, which, moving south, gives way to a hot, dry central plain. The agricultural sector accounts for 11.6% of the GDP, industry 25.7%, and services 62.8%. One Euro is worth 1.5 TND at the moment. [116] According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 94% of Tunisians believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society. A Ministry of Culture was established, under the leadership of ministers such as Habib Boularès who oversaw art and education and power. [200] These galleries include Gallery Yahia in Tunis and Carthage Essaadi gallery. The capital of Tunisia is Tunis, located in the far north of the country. A tourist service ( La Rose des Sables ) was due to start in February 2015, covering the non-passenger Kalaâ Kasbah - Kasserine line. The higher education system in Tunisia has experienced a rapid expansion and the number of students has more than tripled over the past 10 years from approximately 102,000 in 1995 to 365,000 in 2005. It is served by many different airlines including Tunisair, Air France, Lufthansa, EgyptAir and Royal Air Maroc. In fact, the executive power is given to the president. Numerous civilizations and peoples have invaded, migrated to, or have been assimilated into the population over the millennia, with influences of population from Phoenicians/Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, Arabs, Spaniards, Ottoman Turks and Janissaries, and French. Five airlines are headquartered in Tunisia: Tunisair, Syphax airlines, Karthago Airlines, Nouvelair, and Tunisair Express. [39] Following its conquest, the Romans renamed Carthage to Africa, incorporating it as a province. 2009, l'année des rendez-vous culturels importants ", "Previous winners of major international cups And tournaments : the African Cup of Nations", "Tunisian handball team wins 2010 African Cup of Nations", "Tunisia suspended from Davis Cup over Malek Jaziri order | Tennis News", Official website of the Ministry of Tourism, Official website of the National Institute of Meteorology, Official website of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People, Official website of the Tunisian Ministry of the Interior, Official website of The Ministry of Transport, The Emergence and activity of Tunisia's most fearful terrorist group, EU Neighbourhood Info Centre: Country profile of Tunisia, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Union of Arab National Olympic Committees, African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Community of Sahel–Saharan States (CEN-SAD), Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie,, States and territories established in 1956, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, Berber-speaking countries and territories, French-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles needing additional references from July 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2017, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2006, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2015, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 December 2020, at 12:02. 1600s - Tunisia becomes part of the Turkish Ottoman empire, but has a high degree of autonomy. An ideal climate, with a long and gentle seacoast; Tunisia, the northernmost country of Africa has for over 3000 years witnessed the passage of Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, Byzantines, Turks, Spanish and French. Although Tunisia managed an average 5% growth over the last decade it continues to suffer from a high unemployment especially among youth. Tunisia is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. [132], The European Union remains Tunisia's first trading partner, currently accounting for 72.5% of Tunisian imports and 75% of Tunisian exports. Rainfall is almost non-existent, though winter nights in the desert can get chilly. Depending on your planned activities, some travelers may want to consider rabies and hepatitis B injections as well. During the rule of Ben Ali, only three functioned as independent opposition parties: the PDP, FDTL, and Tajdid. Education System. The Tunisians won the 2018 African Cup in Gabon by defeating Egypt.[214]. Cryptocurrency: In 2019, it was announced that Tunisia became the first country to start moving its national currency to a blockchain platform. The themes of wandering, exile and heartbreak are the focus of their creative writing. Location: Mediterranean, Tunisia Categories: About/General Information. Berber Christians continued to live in some Nefzaoua villages up until the early 15th century[179] and the community of Tunisian Christians existed in the town of Tozeur up to the 18th century. In 1869, Tunisia declared itself bankrupt and an international financial commission took control over its economy. Nobel Foundation. In 2006, the former Tunisian president declared that he would "fight" the hijab, which he refers to as "ethnic clothing". The city that will consist of apartment buildings as well as several sports facilities will be built by the Bukhatir Group at a cost of $5 Billion. [117], The Tunisian regime has been criticised[by whom?] ", "Caught in the Net: Tunisia's First Lady", "Ajaccio – Un trafic de yachts entre la France et la Tunisie en procès", "Le parcours fulgurant de Sakhr El-Materi, gendre du président tunisien Ben Ali", "Droits de l'Homme : après le harcèlement, l'asphyxie", "Dans le monde de l'après-11 septembre, seule la paix protège les libertés", "How Tunisia's revolution began – Features", "Wikileaks might have triggered Tunis' revolution", "Tunisia riots: Reform or be overthrown, US tells Arab states amid fresh riots", "Trade unions: the revolutionary social network at play in Egypt and Tunisia", "When fleeing Tunisia, don't forget the gold", Middle East Research and Information Project, "Former dissident sworn in as Tunisia's president", "Tunisia's constitution will not be based on Sharia: Islamist party", "Tunisian opposition leader Chokri Belaid shot dead outside his home", "Tunisia launches Truth and Dignity Commission", "The real reason Tunisia renewed its state of emergency", "Tunisia holds first election under new constitution", "TUNISIA.

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