henri ii angleterre

Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1909. [338] Philip invaded the Berry and Henry mobilised a large army which confronted the French at Châteauroux, before papal intervention brought a truce. Brooke and Brooke, pp. [86] In 1157 pressure from Henry resulted in the young King Malcolm of Scotland returning the lands in the north of England he had taken during the war; Henry promptly began to refortify the northern frontier. [225] Driven by the reforms, the royal revenues increased significantly; during the first part of the reign, Henry's average exchequer income was only around £18,000; after 1166, the average was around £22,000. Stephen agreed to a peace treaty after Henry's military expedition to England in 1153, and Henry inherited the kingdom on Stephen's death a year later. [345] Henry remained silent and Richard then publicly changed sides at the conference and gave formal homage to Philip in front of the assembled nobles. Before he was 40 he controlled England, large parts of Wales, the eastern half of Ireland and the western half of France—an area that would later come to be called the Angevin Empire. [210] Ready cash was increasingly important to rulers during the 12th century to enable the use of mercenary forces and the construction of stone castles, both vital to successful military campaigns. Warren (2000), p. 123; Jones, pp. Turner (2011), pp. [168] Various suggestions have been put forward to explain Henry's family's bitter disputes, from their inherited family genetics to the failure of Henry and Eleanor's parenting. Henry II appears as a character in several modern plays and films. 32 For instance, Warren, Henry II, p. 195. Suggest as a translation of "Henri ii Angleterre" Copy; DeepL Translator Linguee. [322] Richard did not believe that Young Henry had any claim over Aquitaine and refused to give homage. [237] Henry was then free to move against the rebel barons in Brittany, where feelings about his seizure of the duchy were still running high. His marriage in 1152 to Eleanor of Aquitaine, whose marriage to Louis VII had recently been annulled, made him Duke of Aquitaine. [332] Philip had come to power in 1180 and he rapidly demonstrated that he could be an assertive, calculating and manipulative political leader. King (2010), p. 243; Barlow (1999), p. 180. [46][nb 7], Fighting immediately broke out again along the Normandy borders, where Henry of Champagne and Robert captured the town of Neufmarché-sur-Epte. [370] More detailed study of the written records left by Henry has cast doubt on some earlier interpretations: Robert Eyton's ground-breaking 1878 work tracing Henry's itinerary through deductions from the pipe rolls, for example, has been criticised as being too certain a way of determining location or court attendance. Vincent (2007b), p. 313; Warren (2000), p. 141. [321] With trouble clearly brewing, Henry attempted to defuse the situation by insisting that Richard and Geoffrey give homage to Young Henry for their lands. Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. 54–56; Jones, p. 24; Turner (2011), p. 226. Born 5 March 1133 - Le Mans, 72181, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France; Deceased 6 July 1189 - Chinon, 37072, Indre et Loire, Centre, France,aged 56 years old; King of England (1154-1189) Parents. [308] The King also made use of the growing Becket cult to increase his own prestige, using the power of the saint to explain his victory in 1174, especially his success in capturing William. [285] Despite the size and scope of the crisis, Henry had several advantages, including his control of many powerful royal castles in strategic areas, control of most of the English ports throughout the war, and his continuing popularity within the towns across his empire. Warren (2000), p. 625; Carpenter, p. 244. [209] Kings could also raise funds by borrowing; Henry did this far more than earlier English rulers, initially through moneylenders in Rouen, turning later in his reign to Jewish and Flemish lenders. [14], Henry returned to England in 1147, when he was fourteen. 10–11, cited Bates (1994), p. 32; Carpenter, p. 201. Please see Wikipedia's template documentation for further citation fields that may be required. [357] Many of the changes he introduced during his long rule had major long-term consequences. [313] This expansion of Henry's empire once again threatened French security and promptly put the new peace at risk. New Catholic Encyclopedia. [20] The planned attack disintegrated after Stephen marched rapidly north to York, and Henry returned to Normandy. His greatest innovation was to create, out of scattered precedents of his predecessors, the English common law. [305] Henry was less generous to William of Scotland, who was not released until he had agreed to the Treaty of Falaise in December 1174, under which he publicly gave homage to Henry and surrendered five key Scottish castles to Henry's men. [288], In May 1173 Louis and Young Henry probed the defences of the Vexin, the main route to the Norman capital, Rouen; armies invaded from Flanders and Blois, attempting a pincer movement, while rebels from Brittany invaded from the west. Deuxième fils de François Ier et de Claude de France. [140], In England, Henry initially relied on his father's former advisers whom he brought with him from Normandy, and on some of Henry I's remaining officials, reinforced with some of Stephen's senior nobility who made their peace with Henry in 1153. [11] Although having children educated in relatives' households was common among noblemen of the period, sending Henry to England also had political benefits, as Geoffrey was coming under criticism for refusing to join the war in England. [362] Henry's role in the Becket controversy was considered relatively praiseworthy by Protestant historians of the period, while his disputes with the French King, Louis, also attracted positive patriotic comment. Opinions as to the nature of Henry's empire have shifted over time and the term "empire" has itself been criticised. [31] Henry also founded religious hospitals in England and France. [321] Henry refused, but agreed to increase his son's allowance. [365] Late-Victorian historians, with increasing access to the documentary records from the period, stressed Henry's contribution to the evolution of key English institutions, including the development of the law and the exchequer. 33 Sigebert of Gembloux, Chronicon, ed. He was the first king of the House of Plantagenet. [238], As the decade progressed, Henry increasingly wanted to resolve the question of the inheritance. [218][nb 25] These measures were successful in improving his income, but on his return to England in the 1160s Henry took further steps. 65–66; Everard (2000), p. 17. [355], Henry was not a popular king and few expressed much grief on news of his death. [114] Louis also betrothed daughters by Eleanor to Adèle's brothers Theobald V, Count of Blois, and Henry I, Count of Champagne. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, was King of England from 1154 to his death. Over the course of his reign, Henry, like other leaders of the period, attempted to create more private space within his household, away from the throngs of supplicants. Henry VI (1421-1471) was king of England from 1422 to 1461 and in 1470-1471. The old king, discouraged and disheartened, lost some frontier territories, though when he died, his empire was substantially intact. [79], Henry presented himself as the legitimate heir to Henry I and commenced rebuilding the kingdom in his image. Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. [244] Meanwhile, Henry's position in the south of France continued to improve, and by 1173 he had agreed to an alliance with Humbert III, Count of Savoy, which betrothed Henry's son John and Humbert's daughter Alicia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Young Henry and Geoffrey revolted again in 1183, resulting in Young Henry's death. Henry took refuge in Ireland, where he completed the conquest begun by his vassals. “The Templars and the Castle of Tortosa in Syria: an unknown document concerning the acquisition of the fortress”. Recueil des actes de Henri II: Roi D’Angleterre et Duc de Normandie, 1182. Voir plus d'idées sur le thème catherine de médicis, roi de france, france. [183] He also operated an exchequer court at Caen that heard cases relating to royal revenues and maintained king's justices who travelled across the duchy. [111] Henry was not prepared to directly attack Louis, who was still his feudal lord, and withdrew, settling himself with ravaging the surrounding county, seizing castles and taking the province of Quercy. Henry also invested heavily in the construction and renovation of prestigious new royal buildings. [369] The Anglocentric aspects of many histories of Henry were challenged from the 1980s onwards, with efforts made to bring together British and French historical analysis of the period. [235], One of the major international events surrounding Henry during the 1160s was the Becket controversy. [53] A delegation of senior English clergy met with Henry and his advisers at Stockbridge, Hampshire, shortly before Easter in April. [197] There were also long-running concerns over the legal treatment of members of the clergy. Young Henry was unhappy that, despite the title of king, in practice he made no real decisions and his father kept him chronically short of money. Dunbabin, p. 51; Power (2007), pp. Plantagenêt Henri 1133-1189. Henry was stubborn and bore grudges, while Becket was vain, ambitious and overly political: neither man was willing to back down. [58] Despite only modest military successes, he and his allies now controlled the south-west, the Midlands and much of the north of England. 104–15; Warren (2000), pp. The Great Revolt was only defeated by Henry's vigorous military action and talented local commanders, many of them "new men" appointed for their loyalty and administrative skills. Ykenai Or Hikenai Concubine Of England was … [166] Henry was expected to provide for the future of his legitimate children, either through granting lands to his sons or marrying his daughters well. 279–281; Bates (1998), pp. 572–532, cited Hallam and Everard, p. 221; White; Gillingham. h. g. richardson and g. o. sayles, The Governance of Medieval England (Edinburgh 1963). The matter came to a head in January 1164, when Henry forced through agreement to the Constitutions of Clarendon; under tremendous pressure, Becket temporarily agreed but changed his position shortly afterwards. [34] Many of the barons were making individual peace agreements with each other to secure their war gains and it increasingly appeared as though the English church was considering promoting a peace treaty. 124–125. [100] The Breton dukes held little power across most of the duchy, which was mostly controlled by local lords. France, Scotland, Brittany, Flanders, and Boulogne allied themselves with the rebels. In the 1950s Jacques Boussard and John Jolliffe, among others, examined the nature of Henry's "empire"; French scholars in particular analysed the mechanics of how royal power functioned during this period. 235, 237. Blog Press Information. Recueil des actes de Henri II, roi d'Angleterre et duc de Normandie : concernant les provinces franc̨aises et les affaires de France by Henry (Book) 6 editions published between 1909 and 1916 in French and held by 32 WorldCat member libraries worldwide [247] His plan did not have the desired result, as Becket promptly changed his lifestyle, abandoned his links to the King and portrayed himself as a staunch protector of church rights. 596–597; Turner (2009), p. 37. [88], Henry had a problematic relationship with Louis VII of France throughout the 1150s. [334] Philip Augustus regarded Geoffrey as a close friend, and would have welcomed him as a successor to Henry. Henry's younger brother Geoffrey later appears to have circulated a story that his father, on his deathbed, had insisted that Henry be given Anjou and Maine only until he had conquered England, when they would be passed to Geoffrey, although the veracity of this story is doubted by many modern historians. The Book of Contemplation Part II: Wonders of Warfare, Against Infidels and Muslims. Late-20th-century historians have combined British and French historical accounts of Henry, challenging earlier Anglocentric interpretations of his reign. By 1189, Young Henry and Geoffrey were dead, and Philip successfully played on Richard's fears that Henry II would make John king, leading to a final rebellion. Allen, pp. 228–229. [306] Philip of Flanders declared his neutrality towards Henry, in return for which the King agreed to provide him with regular financial support. Hallam and Everard, pp. Duggan (1965), p. 67, cited Alexander, p. 3. [85], The King of Scotland and local Welsh rulers had taken advantage of the long civil war in England to seize disputed lands; Henry set about reversing this trend. Open menu. Philip held a peace conference in November 1188, making a public offer of a generous long-term peace settlement with Henry, conceding to his various territorial demands, if Henry would finally marry Richard and Alys and announce Richard as his recognised heir. This procedure became so popular that almost all important cases came to his courts, thus increasing his power and income. This collapse had various causes, including long-term changes in economic power, growing cultural differences between England and Normandy but, in particular, the fragile, familial nature of Henry's empire. [45] Contemporaneous accounts suggest he left the main castles in Poitou to Geoffrey, implying that he may have intended Henry to retain Normandy and Anjou but not Poitou. [282] Louis supported Young Henry and war became imminent. . [178] Henry relied on traditional, local courts—such as the shire courts, hundred courts and in particular seignorial courts—to deal with most of these cases, hearing only a few personally. Cultural depictions of Henry II of England, Review of King Stephen, (review no. 278, 284–285, 309, 330; Turner (2011), p. 159. [337] Philip threatened to invade Normandy if this did not happen. King Louis VII of France made him Duke of Normandy in 1150. [348] The discussions achieved little, although Henry is alleged to have offered Philip that John, rather than Richard, could marry Alys, reflecting the rumours circulating over the summer that Henry was considering openly disinheriting Richard. [109] Louis married his sister Constance to the Count in an attempt to secure his southern frontiers; nonetheless, when Henry and Louis discussed the matter of Toulouse, Henry left believing that he had the French King's support for military intervention. EN. [83] The process of demolishing the unauthorised castles from the war continued. Barratt, p. 243; Allen, p. 257; White (2000), pp. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps. Power (2007), pp. [319] Richard refused to give up Aquitaine; he was deeply attached to the duchy, and had no desire to exchange this role for the meaningless one of being the junior King of England. [336], In 1186, Philip Augustus demanded that he be given custody of Geoffrey's children and Brittany, and insisted that Henry order Richard to withdraw from Toulouse, where he had been sent with an army to apply new pressure on Philip's uncle, Raymond. [289] Henry secretly travelled back to England to order an offensive on the rebels, and on his return counter-attacked Louis's army, massacring many of them and pushing them back across the border. [72], On landing in England on 8 December 1154, Henry quickly took oaths of loyalty from some of the barons and was then crowned alongside Eleanor at Westminster Abbey on 19 December. [115] This represented an aggressive containment strategy towards Henry rather than the agreed rapprochement, and caused Theobald to abandon his alliance with Henry. Ibn-Munqidh, Usama. On his return to England he promptly excommunicated some of Henry's supporters, and Henry, always a bad-tempered man, demanded vengeance. [44] Their father's plans for the inheritance of his lands had been ambiguous, making the veracity of Geoffrey's claims hard to assess. [342] In the meantime, Richard set about crushing some of his enemies in Aquitaine in 1188, before once again attacking the Count of Toulouse. Jolliffe, p. 140, cited by Gillingham (1984), p. 53. [129] In his absence the lands were ruled by seneschals and justiciars, and beneath them local officials in each of the regions carried on with the business of government. 13 (1909): 54–58 (biog. The first of the Plantagenet kings of England was also one of the most able of all this country's mona…, Henry VI This required the acquiescence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, traditionally the churchman with the right to conduct the ceremony. [208] Medieval rulers such as Henry enjoyed various sources of income during the 12th century. [35] On Louis VII's return from the Second Crusade in 1149, he became concerned about the growth of Geoffrey's power and the potential threat to his own possessions, especially if Henry could acquire the English crown. [12] The canons of St Augustine's in Bristol also helped in Henry's education, and he remembered them with affection in later years. [193][nb 24], Henry's relationship with the Church varied considerably across his lands and over time: as with other aspects of his rule, there was no attempt to form a common ecclesiastical policy. [367] Influenced by the contemporary growth of the British Empire, historians such as Kate Norgate undertook detailed research into Henry's continental possessions, creating the term "the Angevin Empire" in the 1880s. 21 Dec. 2020 . With his new lands, Henry now possessed a much larger proportion of France than Louis. Three of his sons would be king, though Henry the Young King was named his father's co-ruler rather than a stand-alone king. The Norman invasion of Ireland provided lands for his youngest son John (later a king), but Henry struggled to find ways to satisfy all his sons' desires for land and immediate power. [48] Louis's forces moved to attack Aquitaine. [316] In 1181 Geoffrey finally married Constance of Brittany and became Duke of Brittany; by now most of Brittany accepted Angevin rule, and Geoffrey was able to deal with the remaining disturbances on his own. https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-ii-king-england, "Henry II, King of England D.N.B. [200] Further south, the power of the dukes of Aquitaine over the local church was much less than in the north, and Henry's efforts to extend his influence over local appointments created tensions. [328] This proved enough and Richard finally handed over the ducal castles in Aquitaine to Henry. Carpenter, p. 223; Turner (2011), pp. [15] Despite initially causing considerable panic, the expedition had little success, and Henry found himself unable to pay his forces and therefore unable to return to Normandy. Warren (2000), p. 138; Turner (2011), p. 245. 1943, L'eglise et la royaute en Angleterre sous Henri II Plantagenet (1154-89) Bloud Paris. [291] Henry offered to negotiate with his sons, but these discussions at Gisors soon broke down. [2] The French county of Anjou was formed in the 10th century and the Angevin rulers attempted for several centuries to extend their influence and power across France through careful marriages and political alliances. Many earlier historians believed that Henry might have given homage to Louis in 1156. Warren (2000), pp. [314], In the late 1170s Henry focused on trying to create a stable system of government, increasingly ruling through his family, but tensions over the succession arrangements were never far away, ultimately leading to a fresh revolt. [248], Henry and Becket quickly disagreed over several issues, including Becket's attempts to regain control of lands belonging to the archbishopric and his views on Henry's taxation policies. [96][nb 11] They met at Paris and Mont-Saint-Michel in 1158, agreeing to betroth Henry's eldest living son, the Young Henry, to Louis's daughter Margaret. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. [66], In November the two leaders ratified the terms of a permanent peace. Recueil des actes de Henri II, Roi d'Angleterre et Duc de Normandie, concernant les provinces françaises et les affaires de France by Delisle, Léopold, 1826-1910. For others, see, Acquisition of Normandy, Anjou, and Aquitaine, Campaigns in Brittany, Toulouse and the Vexin. Weiler, pp. [157] He opposed the holding of tournaments, probably because of the security risk that such gatherings of armed knights posed in peacetime. [353] He died on 6 July 1189, aged 56; he had wished to be interred at Grandmont Abbey in the Limousin, but the hot weather made transporting his body impractical and he was instead buried at the nearby Fontevraud Abbey. Delisle Recueil des Actes de Henri II, Roi d’Angleterre et Duc de Normandie Introduction (1909): 135–144. Henry I had established a system of royal finances that depended upon three key institutions: a central royal treasury in London, supported by treasuries in key castles; the exchequer that accounted for payments to the treasuries; and a team of royal officials called "the chamber" that followed the King's travels, spending money as necessary and collecting revenues along the way. [94], On his return to the continent from England, Henry sought to secure his French lands and quash any potential rebellion. 130, 159. [235][nb 27] Henry's daughter Eleanor was married to Alfonso VIII of Castile in 1170, enlisting an additional ally in the south. [135] As a powerful ruler, Henry was able to provide either valuable patronage or impose devastating harm on his subjects. [198], By contrast with the tensions in England, in Normandy Henry had occasional disagreements with the Church but generally enjoyed very good relations with the Norman bishops. [339] During the negotiations, Philip suggested to Richard that they should ally against Henry, marking the start of a new strategy to divide the father and son. 36, 39. Just when the dispute seemed resolved, Becket excommunicated another three supporters of Henry, who was furious and infamously announced "What miserable drones and traitors have I nourished and promoted in my household, who let their lord be treated with such shameful contempt by a low-born clerk! 158–159; Warren (2000), p. 42. [52] Bringing only a small army of mercenaries, probably paid for with borrowed money, Henry was supported in the north and east of England by the forces of Ranulf of Chester and Hugh Bigod, and had hopes of a military victory. . [180] While interested in the law, during the first years of his reign Henry was preoccupied with other political issues and even finding the King for a hearing could mean travelling across the Channel and locating his peripatetic court. With … Print Family Tree. Although seals only survive from about 1189, it is not improbable that John, knighted by his father in 1185 (Roger de Hovenden, Chronicles, (Rolls Series) Vol. 1038), "Criticism of Henry II's Expedition to Ireland in William of Canterbury's Miracles of St Thomas Becket", Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, "Kings and Sons: Princely Rebellions and the Structures of Revolt in Western Europe, c.1170-c.1280", Margaret of France, Queen of England and Hungary, Joan, Countess of Hertford and Gloucester, Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henry_II_of_England&oldid=997040617, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 19:02. [285] In Normandy some of the border barons rose up and, although the majority of the duchy remained openly loyal, there appears to have been a wider undercurrent of discontent. [351] They met at Ballan, where Henry, only just able to remain seated on his horse, agreed to a complete surrender: he would do homage to Philip; he would give up Alys to a guardian and she would marry Richard at the end of the coming crusade; he would recognise Richard as his heir; he would pay Philip compensation, and key castles would be given to Philip as a guarantee. [228] Louis's wife Adèle gave birth to a male heir, Philip Augustus, in 1165, and Louis was more confident of his own position than for many years previously. Alicia died before the marriage could take place, although the alliance remained intact. [250] The legal argument was complex at the time and remains contentious. [214] Less is known about how financial affairs were managed in Henry's continental possessions, but a very similar system operated in Normandy, and a comparable system probably operated in both Anjou and Aquitaine. Musset, pp. [354] Henry's empire did not survive long and collapsed during the reign of his youngest son John, when Philip captured all of the Angevin possessions in France except Gascony. Warren (2000), pp. [90] Henry had greater resources than Louis, particularly after taking England, and Louis was far less dynamic in resisting Angevin power than he had been earlier in his reign.

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